Risk Factors For Childhood Pneumonia In North Eastern Pakistan: A Case-Control Study

Sommayya Aftab, Iftikhar Ejaz, Umar Waqar, Humayun Iqbal Khan, Asif Hanif, Amir Usman, Asma Mushtaq, Ilyas Muhammad Nadeem, Holifa Saheera Asmara, Atif Amin Baig


Background: Pneumonia is defined as the inflammation of parenchyma of the lung. It is a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality in childhood throughout the world. The incidence of pneumonia in children under the age of five years is 0.29 episodes per child-year, which equates 151.8 million cases annually in developing countries.

Objective: To determine the risk factors for complicated pneumonia.

Material and Methods: This case-control study conducted in Medical Unit III, The Children’s Hospital & Institute of Child Health Lahore. Out of total of 180 cases of pneumonia, 100 were labeled as complicated pneumonia (case) and 80 were labeled as uncomplicated pneumonia (control). Complicated pneumonia included pneumonia with associated complications. Detail history was taken in both groups and recorded on predesigned proforma. Data was analyzed by SPSS 20. Quantitative risk factors like child age, maternal age and father age were analyzed by mean and standard deviation. However qualitative risk factors like method of feeding, malnutrition, immunization, anaemia, and non-vaccination were analyzed by applying chi-square test and finding odd ratios.

Results: Most significant risk factors associated with complicated pneumonia included younger age, maternal and father education, rural area, malnutrition, anaemia, rickets, birth problems, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referral and delayed in presentation (p <0.05).

Conclusion: Important risk factors for complicated pneumonia like malnutrition, anemia, rickets, birth disaster, admission during neonatal life due to pneumonia, bottle feeding, nonvaccination, referred cases and delayed in presentation can be reduced by improving child health education and immunization.

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Complicated Pneumonia; Uncomplicated Pneumonia; Risk Factors; Developing Countries

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